Nexus Journal Of Arts & Social Sciences(ISSN:2994-9661)

The Vibrancy of the Sadri Language: Delving into the Linguistic Tapestry of the Munda Community, the Largest Tribe of the Indian Subcontinent

Abstract

The Munda people speak the Mundari/ Nagri/ Sadri language. The Munda tribe is one of the most prominent ethnic groups in the Indian Sub-Continent. They have their own unique Culture, Food, Flag, Drink (Haria Wine), and Language (Sadri). Nowadays, they speak the Sadri Language, but there is no written method (letters). People mainly speak Sadri in western and central Jharkhand (Ranchi District) and parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Assam, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Estimates the total number of Sadri speakers may be 2,970,000 for 2020. Without a written system, Munda’s culture survives intermingling with other cultures. The pre-condition for developing a nation is to increase the practice of the mother tongue, but the Munda could not enrich their culture due to the lack of a written form of the Sadri language. I (The author) have discovered the written record of the Sadri Language, and the SAMS (N.G.O.) continues to practice that written system in their tribes in different parts of Bangladesh. Gradually spread the Sadri language to their tribes in other countries.


Introduction

Every nation of the world has its language and written method. That is the mother tongue, and People acquire their mother tongue from their mothers’ mouths. The Munda’s mother tongue is Sadri, but no written form or letter exists [1-33]. It is a language recognized by one’s community or tribe. Language is the primary medium of communication. It is a system used by the people of a particular country or region to express their thoughts through a set of words and written symbols. But the influence of mother tongue plays a different important role in that person’s life. Because it is related to a person’s childhood, and this is his first language. The importance of mother tongue is studied because as students develop their mother tongue, they simultaneously foster other essential skills, such as critical thinking and literacy. They carry these skills into formal education [1-5]. For example, suppose a child develops the ability to guess the meaning of a word by its context or by reading line by line. In that case, they can quickly transfer these skills when they begin studying a second language. However, these multidimensional skills are difficult to teach directly through a second language [33].

The mother tongue is one of the most important means of keeping culture alive. In most cases, direct translation from mother tongue to another language loses the gist of the script. Thus, proficiency in their mother tongue creates a sense of solidarity and identity with the culture and tradition among the students [11-12]. The Munda languages are a group of Austroasiatic languages spoken across portions of central and eastern India by perhaps as many as fifteen million people in total [38]. Many believe that the Munda peoples are autochthonous populations over much of their current areas of inhabitation [5-6]. One of the standard terms used locally to describe the Munda, adibasi, actually means “Aboriginal” [12].


Objectives of the study

A strong mother tongue makes it easier for children to pick up their second language and develop their learning skills [27]. Children’s knowledge and skills can be utilized across languages [14]. However, children can also transfer skills learned in their mother tongue into the language-learning process. So, if children can think more about how to deliver the sentence and when to use it, they can quickly adapt to their cultural identity. The Intergenerational Disruption Scale, often called EIDS, is constructed based on 13 conditions [14]. According to this scale, if the younger generation does not use a language, that language can be identified as endangered [19], [24]. Note that the number of speakers isn’t the only essential factor here [8].

A language that does not have a script is likely to vanish more rapidly because institutions do not teach it. Most of the wording in the world is unscripted, so most of them are endangered, but not all are disappearing [20-21]. Our first task is to document these languages and their cultures so that they do not fade in the future. The next mission is from the text and other results found through the documentation. The next task is to prepare the necessary teaching materials from the text and different results obtained through the documentation so institutions can teach the language. Institutions should introduce these endangered languages to the young generation using grammar books, dictionaries, story books, and other resources prepared through documentation for languages already in danger.

We need to exercise language (Sadri), culture, and our vision to develop for the Munda. In solving the climate and biodiversity crises and preventing the emergence of contagious diseases and financial disasters, we must ensure that the Munda communities’ knowledge is owned and shared. The caustic inequalities of Munda people [2-5] to fully recognize the abuse they have endured and to celebrate their knowledge and wisdom. The world should follow the steps to develop the Sadri Language in the Munda community.

Which languages should we preserve? What should we keep in the language of the indigenous people? UNESCO has a scale for assessing endangered languages called the “UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger.” This atlas categorizes calamitous languages into five levels: Vulnerable, Definitely Endangered, Severely Endangered, Critically Endangered, and Extinct [1-9]. It’s a worthy tool for tracking and perpetuating languages at risk of vanishing.


Methodology

Study Area and Duration: People speak Sadri mainly in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, west Bengal, and Assam in India and Bangladesh greater Rajshahi, Sylhet and Khulna District, and Nepal. I have taken written and oral permission to disclose all or necessary messages to the participants in the research. I completed this study over four years, from 2019 to 2022.

Sampling Framework: Before gathering ultimate data, 2330 household leaders drove a preparative baseline observation and filed records for about 18500 people. In practice, authorities approved almost 100% of the total (N=2330) households and 18500 people in Bangladesh and greater Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna Districts. I collected the data from India and Nepal through SAMS (Sundarbans Adibasi Munda Sangastha), Email, Google Search, and YouTube. I ordered the data from different countries through Mobile phones and online.


Discussion

Language is born from thought. The mentality of the privileged majority is different from that of the disadvantaged minority [14]. So, their language is also foreign. Multidimensional research is done on the language of the Nigam guru [24]. However, minority languages generally remain neglected [44]. There are many languages in our small ethnic groups and tribal societies, which have no written form [27] or No characters, but people survive by word of mouth. With the evolution of time, these languages die a silent death [30], [11]. To one who appreciates language’s traditional and social value [2-5] of language, the extinction of a language is the unjust loss of a precious history in the molten womb of time [6 -8]. Those language-sensitive people try desperately to keep the language flowing out of personal responsibility [37-39]. Language is a sensitive subject, with many people’s history, traditions, culture, and emotions [42].

Initially, the Munda-speaking peoples probably extended over a somewhat larger area before being marginalized into the relatively primitive hill country and (formerly) forested regions, primarily in the states of Odisha and Jharkhand. Significant Munda-speaking groups are also to be found in Madhya Pradesh and throughout distant areas of Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, and through migration to virtually all sites of India, especially in tea-producing regions like Assam [14], [17], [24-25], [43-44]. Of course, Indo-Aryan and Dravidian speakers subsequently settled or inhabited much of the original Munda-speaking locality. The Munda Language and Culture survived without written methods [1-39], [42- 44].

I (The author) have invented the Sadri Letter (written method). Sadri’s letter has already been practiced in the Munda community by helping SAMS (N.G.O.) in Bangladesh. There are 10 Sadri vowel systems, 40 consonants, 10 numerals, and 14 punctuations invented in discussion with the Munda community and SAMS (Sundarbans Adibasi Munda Sangastha).

Sadrilanguage_Huda_Image_NJASS_V1_Issue1_01 Sadrilanguage_Huda_Image_NJASS_V1_Issue1_02Sadrilanguage_Huda_Image_NJASS_V1_Issue1_03 Sadrilanguage_Huda_Image_NJASS_V1_Issue1_04 Sadrilanguage_Huda_Image_NJASS_V1_Issue1_05 Sadrilanguage_Huda_Image_NJASS_V1_Issue1_06


Recommendation

Language preservation does not mean archiving the materials of a language. Instead, the overall result of initiatives to keep a dying or endangered language alive is language conservation. To prevent a language from disappearing, collect written or oral texts (if the language does not have a script) and distribute those texts to the young generation, the vocabulary, corpus, grammar, dictionary, story books, etc., made from the text. Language preservation is the provision of language teaching. Storing these research findings digitally in a safe place so that researchers and speakers can easily access them with the help of technology – these processes are also ways of language preservation.


Conclusion

The main goal of language conservation is to preserve the world’s language and cultural diversity, with only 5 percent surviving. Humans know how to survive in favorable and unfavorable environments [41], [30]. And the future generation may persist in the world by realizing this knowledge. Thus, ensuring language and cultural diversity by preserving language through language documentation and revitalization activities is as important as biodiversity to sustain human civilization. The mother tongue is the living symbol supporting a nation’s existence [11]. Conducting education programs in the mother tongue helps build a nation’s self-esteem, and social and geographical positional respect, and providing equal opportunity to all in different ethnic backgrounds [42]. In today’s interconnected world, if a person is fluent in their mother tongue, it becomes easier to communicate with the world and develop great ideas that can lead the world [8].


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*Corresponding Author:
Md Shaiful Huda, Lecturer, the Head of the Department of Social Work, Examiner of Jashor Board, Munshigonj College, Shyamnagor, Satkhira, Bangladesh Author, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS UK and MEDWIN PUBLISHERS USA. Reviewer: Chicago University Journal (Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research), Oxford University Journal (Policy and Society) and Springer Nature (Journal of Religion and Health). ORCID: 0000-0001-6713-5063, Web of Science Researcher ID: ADY-1692-2022 Contact: Mobile- WhatsApp / Viber / Imo /Telegram +8801917513731, Brilliant- +8809638401053, Alaap- +8809696513731, Email- shaifulhuda176@gmail.com.
Original Articles
Volume 1, Issue 1
Received Date: September 8, 2023
Published Date: October 4, 2023
Keywords: Sadri; Mundari; Nagri; Munda; The Munda; The Munda’s; Ethnic Language; Language
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